First we'll need to install Java 1.6 JDK, and be on PHP 5.2 or higher (You can check my PHP installation tutorial here. Also I'm on CentOS.
Install Java 1.6 JDK
Install Apache Solr
We're going to install Apache Solr into /usr/local/share; however you can install it somewhere else if you'd like (e.g. install it in the root dir / )